Toenail fungus is an infectious disease. This pathology occurs in children and adults and goes through two stages in its formation. As a rule, people apply when they have a neglected form, which complicates the treatment process. There are several types of fungi, each of which differs in additional symptoms: the main manifestations of the disease, regardless of form, are the same. When the first signs of fungus appear, you should contact a dermatologist. To prevent the development of a disease, it is necessary to undergo regular examinations and observe personal hygiene measures.
Toenail fungus: a description of the disease
Toenail fungus(onychomycosis) It is a pathology of an infectious nature and is caused by a variety of fungal organisms.Mushrooms affect about 20% of the world's population.
Onychomycosis accounts for 15-40% of all nail diseases and is found in 3% of the adult population, most often males and children suffering from wearing tight shoes. Women rarely encounter this disease because they care more about their feet.
Fungi occur against the background of the following factors:
- constant contact with chemicals;
- wearing tight shoes;
- increased sweating;
- flat feet;
- non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene;
- immune dysfunctions;
- taking antibiotics and other medications;
- endocrine diseases, pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract and HIV infection;
- vascular disease;
- sports activities (running, swimming, tennis and gymnastics);
- life and work in large industrial cities (miners, etc. ).
Infection occurs during cosmetic procedures in beauty salons with non-compliance with hygiene standards. If a person uses ordinary household items, visits public places in the form of saunas, baths and swimming pools, then this also contributes to the appearance of fungi. You need to be careful when touching wooden objects, as wood has a porous structure and it is almost impossible to remove the infection. Nail fungus looks like this:
Manifestations and main types
The symptoms of the fungus depend on the type of pathogen and the degree of damage to the nail plate. The patient's age affects the recovery rate. In children, nails are affected much less often than in adults. Manifestations depend on the type of pathology:
|Normotrophic||There is a difference in the color of the nail with the same thickness and gloss. First, yellow or white spots and streaks appear on the side surface of the nail plate. If left untreated, they begin to grow, and the nail plate gradually changes color. In patients, onycholysis - the inability of the plaque to grow in the nail bed can be observed|
|Hypertrophic||The color of the nail changes to dark yellow or gray, the plate thickens by 2 mm or more. This is due to the intense growth of skin flakes under the nail. Patients complain of loss of luster. The nail begins to crumble and deform. In patients, they take a shape similar to bird claws (onychogryphosis), which cause pain while walking. The side pieces are given for the greatest destruction|
|atrophy||The nail plate turns gray, the shine is lost. As the disease progresses, the plaque collapses. Often, the nail bed can be exposed and then skin scales can be seen on its surface. Atrophy occurs slowly starting from the outer edge towards the area of growth and folding of the nail|
|Lateral and distal||These two forms occur together and quite often. You may notice a change in the color of the nails in the blue-green or black and yellow grooves. It gradually begins to crumble, becomes rough and the edge is uneven. As the pathology progresses, the plaque begins to deform. Sometimes the appearance of swelling and redness of the rolls is possible. If the patient has a bacterial infection, then pus is released from below him when pressed|
|proximally||Folding of the skin is affected. This form of the disease occurs when the cuticle is removed. The nail begins to whiten in the growth area|
|Total||The nail begins to crumble, break and collapse|
|White||Dust-like white spots appear|
With toenail fungus, there are some of the same symptoms:
- itching of the skin around the nail;
- crushing and bleaching;
- soreness of the affected area.
This disease progresses slowly, going through several stages of development:
- Early stage.
In the first stage, the skin of the feet is affected. Itching, cracks and blisters appear between the toes. In the future, the fungus penetrates deep into the nail and affects it. The disease can be detected only in laboratory conditions after scraping.
In an advanced stage, there is a global nail plate wound. If at this stage you do not start treating the fungus, then not only the nails but also the skin can be destroyed. The main symptoms of the advanced stage are:
- crushed nails;
In the treatment of fungi, medicines are used for topical use.These can be solutions with antifungal substances or varnishes. Patches can be used to layer the affected nail.
If a patient has a lesion of a nail, then these tools are sufficient. If two or more nails are damaged, systemic, complex treatment should be performed. The spray should be applied continuously, and the duration of therapy is up to 12 months.
Antifungal varnishes should not be used by children with hypersensitivity to any of the components of the drug, during pregnancy and lactation. Before using it, you need to remove the damaged nail, degrease its surface with a solution of water and alcohol and then dissolve the varnish. To make the nail look more aesthetic, women can cover this nail with cosmetic varnish on top.
Before using any antifungal agents, you should steam your feet in water with soda and liquid soap. Then they should be wiped with a towel and oil applied to the affected tile, and an adhesive plaster applied to the top to fix it.
Doctors prescribe medication in tablet form at an advanced stage of pathology.
This type of physiotherapy therapy can improve plaque nutrition and increase blood circulation. As a result, the applied preparation penetrates better deep into the nail. To ensure the effectiveness of the course of treatment, you should pass tests on the 14th and 30th days after therapy.